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2021

Constitution of Audit Committee and relevant Provisions under the Companies Act 2013

Section 177 of Companies Act, 2013 lays down the provision the composition and the functions of the committee of audit Committee. The Audit Committee plays critical role in assessment of the Companies’ Financial Information and makes sure that the information is accurate and complete. Further, this section has also made whistle-blowing policy mandatory in India. The Audit Committee is one of the main pillars of the corporate governance system in public companies.

The main objective of an Audit Committee is to improve the integrity in the Financial Statements. It is also responsible for monitoring the internal control process and risk management systems. Charged with the responsibility to oversight of financial reporting and disclosure, the Audit Committee aims to enhance the confidence in the integrity of the company’s financial reports and announcements, the internal control processes and procedures and the risk management systems. 

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2021

Cost audit

Cost Audit is the verification of cost accounts to determine the accuracy of cost accounting records. Cost audit ascertains the accuracy of cost accounting records to ensure that they are in conformity with cost accounting principles, plans, procedures and objectives.

A cost audit comprises the following:

  • Verification of the cost accounting records such as the accuracy of the cost accounts, cost reports, cost statements, cost data and costing technique.
  • Examination of these records to ensure that they adhere to the cost accounting principles, plans, procedures and objective.
  • To report to the government on optimum utilization of national resources.

2021

Requirement of Quorum under Companies Act 2013

A ‘Quorum’ in simple words means the minimum number of members that have to be present. Under the Act, the quorum for a General Meeting, a Board Meeting and an Extraordinary General Meeting is enumerated within its provisions.

A quorum refers to the minimum acceptable level of individuals with a vested interest in a company needed to make the proceedings of a meeting valid under the corporate charter. This clause or general agreement ensures there is sufficient representation present at meetings before any changes can be made by the board.

2020

Compliances for Private Limited Companies under the Companies Act 2013

A private limited company is the most popular form of business entity. Private limited companies in India are governed by the Companies Act under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA). Every private limited company has to follow numbers of compliance as laid down by various statutes and other regulatory bodies. These include but are not limited to the periodic filing of tax and other returns, holding the board and other meetings, maintaining statutory books and accounts etc.

Recently, Government strike off more than 2 Lakh companies and disqualified more than 3 Lakh directors for non-compliance of various provisions of Companies Act, 2013. Such type of historic action came at the time when government came to know about the various techniques used by corporate entity to evade taxes.

2020

Compliances Requirements under the Companies Act 2013

There are certain Compliances under Companies Act, 2013 that are required to be done once company registration is successfully completed. After registration every company gains a separate legal entity and it becomes liable to comply with all the legal requirements mandated under the Act.

Following is a list of all such required compliances under Companies Act, 2013:

2020

Modes of Capital Introduction into the Business

Capital is the residual interest in the assets of an enterprise after deducting all its liabilities. Also known as owner’s equity, it is the access of the aggregate assets of an enterprise over its aggregate liabilities. In other words, equity represents owner’s claim consisting of items like capital and reserve which are clearly distinct from liabilities, i.e. claims of parties other than owners. The value of equity may change either through contribution from / distribution to equity participants or due to income earned / expenses incurred.

Any company would require funds for expansion and growth of its business. Funds can be acquired into the business in two ways i.e. through capital or loan. Here we will discuss the ways in which further capital could be introduced into the company.

Financial Management